Compiled by Abul LaythIs it permitted to seek Tawassul through the Haqq (right) of the Nabi (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam)?
A proof for this stance is what is reported authentically from the Nabi (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) via the companion Maysarah:
قد أخرج الحافظ أبو الحسن بن بشران قال : حدثنا أو جعفر محمد ابن عمرو، حدثنا أحمد بن سحاق بن صالح، ثنا محمد بن صالح، ثنا محمد ابن سنان العوقي، ثنا إبراهيم بن طهمان، عن بديل بن ميسرة، عن عبد الله بن شقيق، عن ميسرة قال: قلت: يا رسول الله، متى كنت نبياً ؟ قال: (( لما خلق الله الأرض واستوى إلى السماء فسواهن سبع سماوات ، وخلق العرش،كتب على ساق العرش: محمد رسول الله خاتم الأنبياء، وخلق الله الجنة التي أسكنها آدم وحواء، فكتب اسمي على الأبواب، والأوراق والقباب، والخيام،وآدم بين الروح والجسد،فلما أحياه الله تعالى: نظر إلى العرش فرأى اسمي فأخبره الله أنه سيد ولدك، فلما غرهما الشيطان ، تابا واستشفعا باسمي إليه
وأخرجه ابن الجوزي في الوفا بفضائل المصطفى من طريق ابن بشرانI said: “O Messenger of Allah, when were you [first] a Prophet?” He replied: “When Allah created the earth ‘Then turned to the heaven, and fashioned it as seven heavens’(2:29), and created the Throne, He wrote on the leg of the Throne: “Muhammad the Messenger of Allah is the Seal of Prophets” (Muhammadun Rasūlullāhi Khātamu al-Anbiyā’). Then Allah created Jannah in which He made Adam and Hawwa’ dwell, and He wrote my name on the gates, its tree-leaves, its domes and tents, at a time when Adam was still between the spirit and the body. When Allah ta’alā instilled life into him he looked at the Throne and saw my name, whereupon Allah informed him that ‘He [Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam)] is the Sayyid (master) of all your descendants.’ When Satan deceived them both, they repented and sought intercession (shafa’a) to Allah with my name.“
It has been reported by Ibn Al-Jawzī in his Al-Wafā bi Fadhā’il Al Mustafā from the chain of Ibn Bushrān. Ibn Al Jawzī mentions,
“Part of the demonstration of his superiority to other Prophets is the fact that Adam (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) asked his Lord through the sanctity (hurma) of Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) that He relent towards him.”
This hadīth has been declared Sahīh by the Imāms of hadīth. Dr. Gibrīl Haddād states the following regarding this hadīth, “Shaykh `Abd Allah al-Ghumari cited it in Murshid al-Ha’ir li Bayan Wad` Hadith Jabir and said, “its chain is good and strong” while in al-Radd al-Muhkam al-Matin (p. 138-139) he adds: “It is the strongest Companion-corroboration (shâhid) I saw for the hadith of `Abd al-Rahman ibn Zayd” as quoted also by Shaykh Mahmud Mamduh in Raf` al-Minara (p. 248).”
Elsewhere Maulana Muhammad ibn Moulana Haroon Abasoomar states:
“The chain of narrators for this Hadith is totally different from the previous one. And in fact, Hafidh ibn Hajar [rahimahullah] has stated concerning a completely different narration which has the very same chain of narrators, that this chain of narrators is strong. (al-Raddul Muhkamul Mateen pgs.138-139; al-Ahaadeethul Muntaqaa pg.14, both of Shaykh Abdullah Siddique al-Ghumari)”. [end quote from G. Haddad]
The hadīth of Abdur-Rahmān ibn Zayd Ibn Aslam, that the scholars above are discussing is the hadīth that goes through ‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattāb (Radhiya Allahu ‘Anhu) that says,
“When Adam committed his mistake he said: “O my Lord, I am asking you to forgive me for the sake of Muhammad. Allah said: ‘O Adam, and how do you know about Muhammad whom I have not yet created? Adam replied, O my Lord, after You created me with your hand and breathed into me of Your Spirit, I raised my head and saw written on the heights of the Throne:
LA ILAHA ILLALLAH MUHAMMADUN RASULULLAH
I understood that You would not place next to Your Name but the Most Beloved One of Your creation. Allah said: O Adam, I have forgiven you, and were it not for Muhammad I would not have created you.”
We shall come back to the hadīth of Abdur-Rahmān ibn Zayd ibn Aslam later. For now, let us review the hadīth of Maysarah and its chain, inshā’Allāh.
The student of Imam al-Suyuti: Imām Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-Salihī of Damascus, who died in the year 942 AH, has mentioned in his multi-volume Sirah work known as: Subul al-Hadi wal Rashhad, this very narration from Maysara (radhiyAllahu ‘Anhu) as follows (vol. 1/p. 86, Darul Kutub Ilmiyya edn, Beirut) from Imam ibn al Jawzi:
وروى ابن الجوزي بسند جيد لا بأس به ، عن ميسرة رضي الله تعالى عنه قال : قلت يا رسول الله ، متى كنت نبيا ؟ قال : لما خلق الله الأرض واستوى إلى السماء فسواهن سبع سماوات وخلق العرش كتب على ساق العرش : محمد رسول الله خاتم الأنبياء . وخلق الله تعالى الجنة التي أسكنها آدم وحواء ، فكتب اسمي على الأوراق والأبواب والقباب والخيام ، وآدم بين الروح والجسد ، فلما أحياه الله تعالى نظر إلى العرش فرأى اسمي ، فأخبره الله تعالى أنه سيد ولدك . فلما غرهما الشيطان تابا واستشفعا باسمي إليه
A review of this specific chain shows that all of the men are thiqāt (trustworthy). The chain as mentioned before is:
حدثنا أو جعفر محمد ابن عمرو، حدثنا أحمد بن سحاق بن صالح، ثنا محمد بن صالح، ثنا محمد ابن سنان العوقي، ثنا إبراهيم بن طهمان، عن بديل بن ميسرة، عن عبد الله بن شقيق، عن ميسرة
Abū Ja’far Muhammad ibn ‘Amrū, Ahmad ibn Is-hāq ibn Sālih, Muhammad ibn Sālih, Muhammad ibn Sinān Al-‘Awaqī, Ibrāhīm ibn Tahmān from Budayl ibn Maysarah from Abdullah ibn Shaqīq from Maysarah.
1) Abū Ja’far Muhammad ibn ‘Amrū is Ibn Bakhtarī Ar-Razzāz. In his tarjamah in Tārīkh Al Baghdād it states, ثقة ثبت , Thiqah (highly trustworthy) and established. [3/132]
2) Ahmad ibn Is-hāq ibn Sālih. He is Abū Bakr Al Wazān. In Tārīkh Al Baghdād in his tarjamah it states, صدوق, Honest/Reliable. [4/28]
3) Muhammad ibn Sālih could be one of two people. The first is Muhammad ibn Sālih, Abū Bakr Al Anmātī known as Kīlajah. Ibn Hajr states about him in his Taqrīb, “Thiqah, Hāfith (highly trustworthy and a master of hadīth).” It also could be Muhammad ibn Sālih Al-Wāsitī Ka’b Ath-Thirā’a. In his tarjamah in Tārīkh Al Baghdād (5/360) it states, “thiqah”. Thus, the plausibility of this Muhammad ibn Sālih being either of the two men is of no harm considering the fact that they are both thiqah (trustworthy) in hadīth.
4) Muhammad ibn Sinān Al ‘Ūqī. Ibn Hajr states about him in his Taqrīb “ثقة ثبت” (thiqah – highly trustworthy and established). Bukhārī reports from him directly, 29 hadīth. Ibn Ma’īn, Ad-Dāraqutnī, Muslimah and others declared him Thiqah.
5) Ibrahīm ibn Tahmān Al-Khurāsānī. Ibn Hajr mentions in his Tahthīb At-Tahthīb that Imāms Ahmad, Abū Hātim, Abū Dāwūd, Ad-Dārimī, and others deem him Thiqah. Ibn Al Mubārak says, “Sahīh in Hadīth”. [Entry 231 of Vol. 1 Page 85 published by Dār Al Ihyā]
The rest of the reporters are known as thiqah to anyone having the slightest familiarity with the sciences of hadīth. So as the noble reader can see with their own eyes, this hadīth is authentic, as shown above.
The hadīth of Abdur-Rahmān ibn Zayd ibn Aslam that was mentioned earlier is a supporting narration of it as well, as was also mentioned above. In the chain however, is Abdur-Rahmān ibn Zayd ibn Aslam who is Dha’īf (weak) according to the majority of scholars. Abū Hātim says about him, “he is not strong in hadīth, but he was Sālih (righteous) and in hadīth wāhiyan (having weakness).” The only one to deem him above the level of dha’īf was ibn ‘Adī who says, “There are hassān (good) hadīth for him, and some of them (i.e. scholars) attested to his truthfulness, and he was from those who they recorded hadīth from.” [See Tahthīb At-Tahthīb] So as you can see his hadīth has support from the above hadīth, and thus the scholars deemed it acceptable. Some of those scholars that did so were, Al Hākim in his Mustadarak who declared it authentic, Qādhī Iyad in his Shifa. Ibn Al Jawzī in the previous work we mentioned from him titled, Al-Wafā. He states in his introduction, “(In this book) I do not mix the sound hadith with the false.” As-Suyūtī in Khasā’is Al-Kubrā and ad-Durr Al Manthur (2:37) where he states that Imām Al-Bayhaqī considers it sound. Also, as mentioned before, Imām Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-Salihī of Damascus the student of Imam As-Suyuti. In a famous book wherein Ibn Hajr Al-‘Asqalānī refutes some statements of Ibn Taymiyyah, titled “Jawhar Al Munthim”, Al-Hāfith Ibn Hajr Al-‘Asqalānī quotes the following narration to prove the validity of this type of tawassul; and declares, “Authenticated by Al Hākim”.
After showing the Sahīh and Hasan level of these two reports, it becomes clear that those who deem this type of tawassul ‘Bida’ah‘ (heretical innovation) are incorrect in condemning this noble type of tawassul. They reject these ahādīth, not on the principles of this noble science, but on the premise of their lowly desires.
And with Allah is truth and guidance for all!