Although they say they are Muslims, Wahhabis, also called Najdis, are one of the groups who have departed from the Ahl as-Sunnat.
Ahmad Jawdat Pasha, a statesman, and Ayyub Sabri Pasha [d. 1308 (1890 A.D.)], Rear-Admiral during the time of the thirty-fourth Ottoman sultan 'Abd al-Hamid Khan II [1258-1336 (1842-1918), buried in the shrine of Sultan Mahmud in Istanbul] (rahmat-Allahi ta'ala 'alaihim), each wrote a history book, in which they explained Wahhabism in full detail. The following is derived, for the most part, from the latter's book, who translated this information from Ahmad Zaini Dahlan's book "Fitnat al-Wahhabiyya." He passed away in 1308 (1890 A.D.).
Wahhabism was established by Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab. He was born in Huraimila in Najd in 1111 (1699 A.D.) and died in 1206 (1791 A.D.). Formerly, he had been to Basra, Baghdad, Iran, India and Damascus with a view to traveling and trade. He was in Basra when, in 1125 [1713 A.D.], he succumbed to a snare set by Hempher, who was only one of the numerous British spies, and served as a tool in the British plans to (destroy Islam). He published the absurdities prepared by the spy in the name of Wahhabism. Our book Confessions of A British Spy gives detailed information on the establishment of Wahhabism. There he found and read books written by Ahmad Ibn Taymiyya of Harran [661-728 (1263-1328), d. in Damascus], the contents of which were incompatible with the Ahl as-Sunnat. Being a very cunning person, he became known as ash-Shaikh an-Najdi. His book Kitab at-tawhid ,which he prepared in cooperation with the British spy, was annotated by his grandson, 'Abd ar-Rahman, and was interpolated and published in Egypt with the title Fat'h al-majid by a Wahhabi called Muhammad Hamid. Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab's ideas spread among villagers, the inhabitants of Dar'iyya and their chief, Muhammad ibn Su'ud. Those who accepted his ideas, which he termed Wahhabiyya, are called Wahhabis or Najdis. They increased in number, and he imposed himself as the Qadi and Muhammad ibn Su'ud as the amir (ruler). He declared it as a law that only their own descendants should succeed them.
Muhammad's father, 'Abd al-Wahhab, who was a pious Muslim and a scholar of Medina, apprehended from Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab's words that he would start a perverted movement and advised everybody not to talk with him. But he proclaimed Wahhabism in 1150 (1737 A.D.). He spoke ill of the ijtihads of the 'ulama' of Islam. He went so far as to call the Ahl as-Sunnat "disbelievers." He said that he who visited the shrine of a prophet or of a wali and addressed him as "Ya Nabi-Allah!" (O Allah's Prophet) or as, "Ya 'Abd al-Qadir!" would become a polytheist (mushrik).
The Wahhabi point of view is that he who says that anybody besides Allahu ta'ala did something becomes a polytheist, a disbeliever. For example, he who says, "Such and such medicine relieved the pain," or "Allahu ta'ala accepted my prayers near the tomb of such and such a prophet or wali," becomes a polytheist. To prove these ideas, he puts forth as documents the ayat al-karima: "Iyyaka nastain" (Only Thy help we ask) of the Surat al-Fatiha and the ayats expounding tawakkul.
The book Al-Usul-ul-arba'a fi-terdid-il-wahhabiyya, at the end of its second part, says in Persian:
The Wahhabis and other la-madhhabi people cannot comprehend the meanings of majaz and isti'ara' (metaphor). Whenever somebody says that he did something, they call him a polytheist or a disbeliever though his expression is a majaz. However, Allahu ta'ala declares in many ayats of Qur'an al-karim that He is the Real Maker of every act and that man is the majazi maker. In the 57 th ayat of Surat al-Anam and in Surat Yusuf, He says: "The decision (hukm) is Allahu ta'ala's alone," that is, Allahu ta'ala is the only Decider (hakim). In the 64 th ayat of the Surat an-Nisa', He says: "They will not be believers unless they make thee (the Prophet) judge (yuhakkimunaka) of what is in dispute between them." The former ayat states that Allahu ta'ala is the only Real Hakim, and the latter states that man can be metaphorically referred to as a hakim.
Every Muslim knows that Allahu ta'ala alone is the One who gives life and takes life away, for He declares: "He alone gives and takes life," in the 56 th ayat of the Surat Yunus, and, "Allahu ta'ala is the One who makes man dead at the time of his death," in the 42 nd ayat of the Surat az-Zumar. In the 11 th ayat of the Surat as-Sajda, He says as a majaz: "The angel who is appointed as the deputy to take life takes your life."
Allahu ta'ala alone is the One who gives health to the sick, for the 80 th ayat of Surat ash-Shu'ara states: "When I become sick, only He gives me recovery." He quotes 'Isa ('alaihi 's-salam) in the 49 th ayat of the Al-i 'Imran sura as saying: "I heal him who is blind and baras, and I bring the dead back to life by Allahu ta'ala's permission." The One who gives a child to man is actually He; the 18 th ayat of the Surat Mariam states [the Archangel] Jabrail's ('alaihi 's-salam) majazi words, "I will give you a pure son."
The real owner of man is Allahu ta'ala. The 257 th ayat of the Surat al-Baqara states this openly: "Allahu ta'ala is the Wali (Protector, Guardian) of those who believe." And by saying, "Allahu ta'ala and His Prophet ('alaihi 's-salam) are your walis," and "The Prophet protects the believers more than they protect themselves," in the 56 th and 6 th ayats of Suras al-Ma'ida and al-Ahzab, respectively, He means that man, too, though symbolically, is a wali. Similarly, the real helper is Allahu ta'ala, and He also calls men 'muin' (helper) metaphorically. He says in the third ayat of the Surat al-Ma'ida: "Help one another in goodness and piety (taqwa)." Wahhabis use the word 'mushrik' (polytheist) for those Muslims who call somebody an 'abd (servant, slave) of someone other than Allahu ta'ala, for example, ''Abd an-Nabi' or ''Abd ar-Rasul'; however, in the 32 nd ayat of Surat an-Nur, it is declared: "Give in marriage your unmarried women and those pious ones among your slaves and female slaves." The Real Rabb (Trainer) of men is Allahu ta'ala, but someone else can also be called 'rabb' metaphorically; in the 42 nd ayat of the Surat Yusuf is said, "Mention me in the presence of your rabb."
'Istighatha' is what the Wahhabis oppose most: 'to ask help or protection of someone other than Allahu ta'ala,' which they call polytheism. In fact, as all Muslims know, true istighatha is only for Allahu ta'ala. However, it is permissible to say metaphorically that one can do istighatha for someone, for, it is declared in the 15 th ayat of Surat al-Qassass: "People of his tribe did istighatha for him against the enemy." A hadith ash-Sharif says, "They will do istighatha for Adam ('alaihi 's-salam) at the place of the Mahshar." A hadith ash-Sharif written in Al-hisn al-hasin, says, "He who needs help should say, 'O Allahu ta'ala's slaves! Help me!' " This hadith ash-Sharif commands one to call for help from someone not near him." Translation from the book Al-Usul-ul-arba'a ends here.
[Every word has a distinguishable meaning, which is called the real meaning of that word. The word will be called majaz when it is not used in its real meaning but in any other meaning which can be related to it. When a word special to Allahu ta'ala is used as majaz for human beings, Wahhabi people will think that the word is being used with its real meaning. So, they will call a person who uses the word mushriq, or kafir. But they should pay attention to the fact that these words are used as majaz in ayats and hadith ash-Sharifs for human beings.]
To ask for shafa'a (intercession) and help from Rasulullah ('alaihi 's-salam) and the awliya' does not mean to turn away from Allahu ta'ala or to forget that He is the Creator. It is like expecting rain from Him through the cause or means (wasita) of clouds; expecting cure from Him by taking medicine; expecting victory from Him by using cannons, bombs, rockets and aeroplanes. These are causes. Allahu ta'ala creates everything through causes. It is not polytheism (shirk) to stick to these causes. Prophets 'alaihim-us-salam always clung to causes. As we go to a fountain to drink water, which Allahu ta'ala created, and to the bakery to get bread, which again He created, and as we make armaments and drill and train our troops so that Allahu ta'ala will give us victory, so we set our hearts on the soul of a prophet or a wali in order that Allahu ta'ala will accept our prayers. To use a radio in order to hear a sound which Allahu ta'ala creates through the means of electro-magnetic waves does not mean to forget about Him and have recourse to a box, for He is the One who gives this peculiarity, this power, to the apparatus in the radio box. Allahu ta'ala has concealed His Omnipotence in everything. A polytheist worships idols but does not think of Allahu ta'ala. A Muslim, when he uses causes and means, thinks of Allahu ta'ala, who gives effectiveness and peculiarities to the causes and creatures. Whatever he wishes, he expects it from Allahu ta'ala. He knows that whatever he gets comes from Allahu ta'ala. The meaning of the above-mentioned ayat shows that this is true. That is, when saying the Surat al-Fatiha in each salat, the believer says, 'O my Rabb! I hold on to material and scientific causes in order to get my worldly desires and needs, and beg Thine beloved slaves to help me. As I do so, and always, I believe that Thou alone is the Giver, the Creator of wishes. From Thee alone I expect!' believers who say this every day can not be said to be polytheists. To ask for help from the souls of prophets and awliya' is to hold on to these causes, which were created by Allahu ta'ala. This ayat of Surat al-Fatiha states clearly that they are not polytheists but true believers. Wahhabis also stick to material and scientific means. They satisfy their sensual desires by any means. But they call it "polytheism" to have recourse to prophets and awliya' as mediators.
Since the words of Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab were all in accordance with sensual desires, those who did not have religious knowledge believed them easily. They asserted that the 'ulama' of the Ahl as-Sunnat and Muslims of the right way were disbelievers. Amirs (leaders) found Wahhabism consistent with their desires to increase their power and to extend their lands and territories. They forced the Arab tribes to become Wahhabi. They killed those who did not believe them. Villagers, from fear of death, obeyed the amir of Dar'iyya, Muhammad ibn Sa'ud. Becoming soldiers of the amir suited their desires to attack the property, life and chastity of non-Wahhabis.
Shaikh Sulaiman, Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab's brother, was an 'alim of the Ahl as-Sunnat. This blessed person refuted Wahhabism in his book As-sawa'iq al-ilahiyya fi 'r-raddi 'ala 'l-Wahhabiyya and deterred the dissemination of its heretical tenets. This valuable book was printed in the year 1306. It was also printed in offset process in Istanbul in 1395 [1975 A.D.]. Muhammad's teachers, who realized that he had opened a way leading to evil, refuted his corrupt books. They announced that he had deviated from the right way. They proved that Wahhabis gave wrong meanings to ayats and hadiths. Yet all these increased the villagers' resentment and hostility against the believers.
Wahhabism was spread not through knowledge but through cruelty and bloodshed by ignorant people. Of the cruel who soaked their hands with blood in this way, the amir or Dar'iyya, Muhammad ibn Sa'ud, was the most stone-hearted. This man was of the Bani Hanifa tribe and was one of the descendants of those idiots who had believed Musailamat al-kadhdhab as a prophet. He died in 1178 [1765 A.D.] and was succeeded by his son 'Abd-ul-'aziz, who, in his turn, was slain by a Shiite in 1217. He was succeeded by his son Sa'ud, who died in 1231. His son Abdullah took his place, only to be executed in Istanbul in 1240. His place was taken by Tarki bin Abdullah, a grandson of 'Abd-ul-'aziz's. The person to succeed him, in 1254, was his son Faisal, who in his turn was succeeded by his son Abdullah in 1282. His brother 'Abd-ur-rahman and his son 'Abd-ul-'aziz settled in Kuwait. In 1319 [1901 A.D.] 'Abd-ul-'aziz moved to Riyad and became the Amir. In 1918 he attacked Mecca in cooperation with the British. In 1351 [1932 A.D.] he established the State of Sa'udi Arabia. We read in newspapers issued in 1991 that Fahd, the Amir of Su'ud, had sent four billion dollars as an aid to the Russian disbelievers who had been fighting the Mujahidin in Afghanistan.
It is said that Wahhabis are on the way of being sincere in believing in the Oneness of Allahu ta'ala and in escaping disbelief, that all Muslims have been polytheists for six hundred years, and that they have been trying to save them from disbelief. To prove themselves right, they put forward the fifth ayat karima of Surat al-Ahqaf and the 106 th ayat karima of the Surat Yunus. However, all the commentaries of Qur'an al-karim unanimously write that these two ayats and many others have all been sent down for polytheists. The first of these ayats is: "No one is more heretical than the one who turns away from Allahu ta'ala and prays to things which will never hear till the end of the world.' And the other is: "Tell the Meccan polytheists, 'I was commanded not to pray to things, which are neither useful nor harmful, other than Allahu ta'ala. If you pray to anyone but Allahu ta'ala, you will be torturing and doing harm to yourselves!"
The book Kashf ash-shubuhat deals with the third ayat karima of Surat az-Zumar, which declares: "Those who accept things other than Allahu ta'ala as guardians say, 'If we worship them, we worship them so that they might help us approach Allahu ta'ala and intercede for us.' " This ayat karima quotes the words of polytheists who worship idols. The book likens Muslims who ask for shafa'a to such polytheists and intentionally says that polytheists also believed that their idols were not creative but that Allahu ta'ala alone was the Creator. In an interpretation of this ayat karima, the book Ruh al-bayan says, "Human creatures are created with the ability to acknowledge the Creator, who created them and everything. Every human creature feels the desire to worship his Creator and to be drawn towards Him. Yet this ability and desire are worthless, for the nafs, Satan or bad companions might deceive man, [and as a result, this innate desire will be destroyed,] and man will become [either an unbeliever in the Creator and the Last Day like communists and freemasons or] a polytheist. A polytheist cannot approach Allahu ta'ala, nor can he know Him. The valuable thing is the marifa, the knowledge, which ensues after eliminating polytheism and embracing tawhid. Its sign is to believe in prophets ('alaihi 's-salam) and their books and to follow them. This is the only way of being drawn towards Allahu ta'ala. The merit of prostrating oneself was naturally given to Satan, but he refused to prostrate in a manner unsuitable for his nafs. Ancient Greek philosophers became disbelievers because they wanted to approach Allahu ta'ala not by following prophets ('alaihi 's-salam) but by their own reasons and nafses. Muslims, to approach Allahu ta'ala, adapt themselves to Islam, thus their hearts get filled with spiritual light. The attribute 'Jamal' (Beauty) of Allahu ta'ala manifests itself to their spirits. Polytheists, to approach Allahu ta'ala, follow not the Prophet or Islam but their nafses, their defective minds and bidats, and thus their hearts get darkened and their spirits get obscured. Allahu ta'ala, at the end of this ayat karima, states that they lie in their statement, "We worship idols so that they shall intercede for us." As it is seen, it is very unjust to take the 25 th ayat karima of Surat al-Luqman, which says, "If you ask disbelievers, 'Who created the earth and the skies?' they will say, 'certainly Allahu ta'ala created them,' " and the 87 th ayat karima of Surat az-Zukhruf, which says, "If you ask those who worship things other than Allahu ta'ala, 'Who created these?' they will say, 'Certainly Allahu ta'ala created them,' " as documents and to say, "Polytheists, too, knew that the Creator was Allah alone. They worshipped idols so that they would intercede for them on the Day of Judgement. For this reason they became polytheists and disbelievers."
We, Muslims, do not worship prophets ('alaihi 's-salam) or awliya' (rahimahum-Allahu ta'ala) and say that they are not companions or partners of Allahu ta'ala. We believe that they were creatures and human beings and that they are not worth worshipping. We believe that they are the beloved slaves of Allahu ta'ala, and He will pity His slaves for the sake of His beloved ones. Allahu ta'ala alone creates loss and profit. He alone is worth worshipping. We say that He pities His slaves for the sake of His beloved ones. As for polytheists, though they, owing to the knowledge inherent in their creation, say that their idols are not creative, and because they have not developed this latent knowledge by following prophets ('alaihimu 's-salam), believe that their idols are worth worshipping, and so they worship them. Because they say idols are worth worshipping, they become polytheists. Otherwise, they would not become polytheists for saying that they wanted intercession. As it is seen, likening the Ahl as-Sunnat to idolatrous disbelievers is completely wrong. All these ayats were sent for idolatrous disbelievers and polytheists. The book Kashf ash-shubuhat gives wrong meanings to the ayats, uses sophism and says that the Muslims of the Ahl as-Sunnat are polytheists. It also recommends that non-Wahhabite Muslims should be killed and that their property should be confiscated.
Two hadiths reported by 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar (radi-Allahu 'anhuma) state: "They have left the right course. They have imputed to Muslims the [meanings of the] ayats that descended for disbelievers," and "Of all my fears on behalf of the Umma, the most horrible thing is their interpretation of Qur'an al-karim according to their own opinions and their fallacious translations." These two hadiths foretold that the la-madhhabi would appear and by misinterpreting the ayats that had descended for disbelievers they would use them against the Muslims.
Another person who realized that Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab had wrong ideas and would be harmful later on and who gave advice to him was Shaikh Muhammad ibn Sulaiman al-Madani (d. in Medina in 1194/1780, rahimah-Allahu ta'ala), one of the great 'ulama' of Medina. He was a Shafi'i scholar of fiqh and wrote many books. His annotation on Ibn Hajar al-Makki's (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala) At-tuhfat al-muhtaj, a commentary to the book Minhaj, has gained great fame. In his two-volume book, which is entitled Al-fatawa, he says, "O Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab! Don't slander Muslims! I advice you for Allahu ta'ala's sake. Yes, if someone says that someone other than Allahu ta'ala creates actions, tell him the truth! But those who cling to causes (wasila) and who believe that both causes and the effective power in them are created by Allahu ta'ala cannot be called disbelievers. You are a Muslim, too. It would be more correct to call one Muslim a 'heretic' than calling all Muslims as such. He who leaves the community is more likely to go astray. The 114 th ayat karima of Surat an-Nisa' proves my word right: 'If a person who, after learning the way to guidance, opposes the Prophet ('alaihi 's-salam) and deviates from the believers' beliefs and 'ibadat, in the next world We shall resurrect him in disbelief and apostasy, with which he has been so intimate, and We shall hurl him into Hell."
Though Wahhabis have innumerable wrong tenets, they are based on three principles:
1 - They say that a'mal or 'ibadat are included in iman and that he who does not perform a fard though he believes that it is fard, for example, salat because of laziness or zakat because of stinginess, becomes a disbeliever and he must be killed and his possessions must be distributed among Wahhabis.
Ash-Shihristani states: "The 'ulama' of the Ahl as-Sunnat have unanimously said that 'ibadat are not included in iman. One who, though he believes it to be a fard, does not perform a fard because of laziness does not become a disbeliever. There has not been unanimity concerning those who do not perform salat; according to Hanbali Madhhab, one who does not perform salat because of laziness becomes a disbeliever." [Thena-ullah Pani-Puti 'rahmatullahi alaih' states at the beginning of his book Ma-la budda, "A Muslim does not become a disbeliever by committing a grave sin. If he is put into Hell, he will be taken out of Hell sooner or later and will be put into Paradise. He will stay eternally in Paradise." This book is in Persian and was printed in Delhi in 1376 [1956 A.D.] and was reproduced by Hakikat Kitabevi in Istanbul in 1410 [1990 A.D.]. In Hanbali Madhhab, it was said that only he who did not perform salat would become a disbeliever. The same was not said for other kinds of 'ibadat. Therefore, it would be wrong to consider Wahhabis as Hanbali in this respect. As explained above, those who do not belong to the Ahl as-Sunnat cannot be Hanbali, either. Those who do not belong to any of the four Madhhabs do not belong to the Ahl as-Sunnat.
2 - They say that one who asks for shafa'a from the souls of prophets ('alaihimu 's-salam) or awliya' (rahimahum-Allahu ta'ala) or who visits their tombs and prays while considering them mediators becomes a disbeliever. They also believe that the dead do not have any sense.
If a person who talked to a dead person in a grave had been a disbeliever, our Prophet (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam), great 'ulama' and the awliya' would not have prayed in this manner. It was our Prophet's (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) habit to visit the Bakee Cemetery in Medina and the martyrs of Uhud. In fact, it is written on the 485 th page of the Wahhabite book Fath al-majid that he greeted and talked to them.
Our Prophet (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) always said in his prayers, "Allahumma inni as-aluka bi-haqqi 's-sa'ilina 'alaika," (O my Allahu ta'ala! I ask Thee for the sake of those people whom Thou hast given whatever they asked) and recommended to pray so. When he interred Fatima, the mother of Hadrat 'Ali (radi-Allahu 'anhuma), with his own blessed hands, he said, "Ighfir li-ummi Fatimata binti Asad wa wassi' 'alaiha madkhalaha bi-haqqi nabiyyika wal-anbiya' illadhina min qabli innaka arhamu 'r-rahimin." (O Allahu ta'ala! Forgive Mother Fatimat binti Asad, her sins! Widen the place she is in! Accept this prayer of mine for the right [love] of Thy Prophet and of the prophets who came before me! Thou art the Most Merciful of the merciful!) In a hadith ash-Sharif reported by 'Uthman ibn Hunaif (radi-Allahu 'anh) one of the greatest of the Ansar, it is told how the Prophet ('alaihi 's-salam) ordered a blind man, who asked him to pray for his healing, to perform an ablution and a salat of two rak'as and then to say, "Allahumma inni asaluka wa atawajjahu ilaika bi-nabiyyika Muhammadi 'n-nabiyyi 'r-Rahma, ya Muhammad inni atawajjahu bika ila Rabbi fi hajati hadhihi li-takdiya li, Allahumma shaffi'hu fiyya." In this prayer the blind man was commanded to have recourse to Muhammad ('alaihi 's-salam) as a mediator so that his prayer would be accepted. The Sahabat al-kiram often recited this prayer, which is quoted in the second volume of Ashi'at al-lama'at and also in Al-hisn al-hasin with its references and, in its explanation, interpretation as, "I turn towards Thee through Thine Prophet."
These prayers show that it is permissible to put those whom Allahu ta'ala loves as mediators and to pray to Him by saying "for their sake."
Shaikh 'Ali Mahfuz who died in 1361 (1942 A.D.), one of the great 'ulama' of Jami' al-Azhar, praises Ibn Taymiyya and 'Abduh very much in his book Al-ibda'. Nevertheless, he says in the two hundred and thirteenth page of the same book: "It is not right to say that the great awliya' (rahimahum-Allahu ta'ala) dispose worldly affairs after death, such as curing the ill, rescuing those who are about to be drowned, helping those who are against the enemy and having lost things found. It is wrong to say that, because the awliya are very great, Allahu ta'ala has left these tasks to them or they do what they wish or that one who clings to them will not go wrong. But whether they are alive or dead, Allahu ta'ala blesses, among His awliya', the ones whom He wills, and, through their karamat, He cures the ill, rescues those who are about to be drowned, helps those who are fighting an enemy and recovers lost things. This is logical. Also Qur'an al-karim reveals these facts."
'Abd al-Ghani an-Nabulusi (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala) writes: "A hadith qudsi, which al-Bukhari reported from Abu Huraira (radi-Allahu ta'ala 'anh), says: Allahu ta'ala declared: 'My slaves cannot approach Me through anything as close as they approach me by means of the fard. If My slaves do the supererogatory 'ibadat, I like them so much that they hear with Me, see with Me, hold everything with Me, walk with Me, and I give them whatever they ask of Me. If they trust in Me, I protect them.' " The supererogatory 'ibadat mentioned here are [as clearly written in Maraq al-falah and at-Tahtawi's annotation. Please see page 428.] the sunnat and supererogatory 'ibadat done by those who do the 'ibadat which are fard. This hadith ash-Sharif shows that one who, after doing the 'ibadat which are fard, does the supererogatory worships will earn Allahu ta'ala's love and his prayers will be accepted." Whether alive or dead, when such people pray for others, people for whom they pray get what they wish. Such people hear even when they are dead. As they did not when they were alive, they do not turn down those who ask empty-handed, but they pray for them. For this reason, a hadith ash-Sharif states: "When you are in trouble in your affairs, ask for help from those who are in graves!" The meaning of this hadith ash-Sharif is clear, and its tawil (interpretation in a different way) is not permitted. Alusi's tawil is false.
In actual fact, "Muslims are still Muslims when they are dead just as is the case when they are asleep. Prophets are still prophets ('alaihi 's-salam) after death just as is the case when they are asleep; for, it is the soul who is a Muslim or a prophet. When a man dies, his soul does not change. This fact is written in the book 'Umdat al-'aqa'id by Imam 'Abdullah an-Nasafi [printed in London in 1259 (1843 A.D.)]. Likewise, awliya' are still awliya' (rahimahum-Allahu ta'ala) when they are dead just as they are when asleep. He who does not believe this is ignorant and stubborn. I have proven in another book that the awliya' possess karamat after they die, too." The Hanafi scholar Ahmad ibn Sayyid Muhammad al-Makki al-Hamawi and the Shafi'i scholars Ahmad ibn Ahmad as-Sujai and Muhammad ash-Shawbari al-Misri wrote booklets in which they proved with evidence that awliya' possessed karamat, that their karamat continued after their death, and that tawassul or istighatha [see below] at their graves was permitted (jaiz).
Muhammad Hadimi Effendi (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala) of Konya (d. 1176/1762 in Konya) wrote: "The Karamat of awliya' are true. A wali is a Muslim who is al-'arifu bi'llah (one who knows Allahu ta'ala and His Attributes as much as is possible). He performs many 'ibadat and taat. He very carefully avoids sins and the sensual desires of his nafs. Things created by Allahu ta'ala outside of His custom and scientific laws are called 'khariq-ul 'ada' (extraordinary things), which are of eight kinds: mujiza, karama, i'ana, ihana, sihr, ibtila, isabat al-ayn (effect caused by the evil eye) and irhas. Karama is an extraordinary occurrence that happens through a devoted believer who is al-'arifu bi'llah. He is a wali, not a prophet. Abu Ishaq Ibrahim al-Isfaraini, a Shafi'i scholar, denied some of the karama, and all Mutazila denied karama. They said that it can be confused with mujiza and, therefore, belief in prophets might become difficult. However, a wali to whom a karama happened does not claim prophethood, nor does he want a karama to happen. It is permissible to pray to Allahu ta'ala through prophets and awliya' even after their death because their mujiza and karama do not cease after death. This type of prayer is called 'tawassul' or 'istighatha.' Ar-Ramli, too, said the same. Al-Imam al-Haramain said, 'Only the Shiites deny the continuity of karama after death.' 'Ali Ajhuri, a prominent Maliki scholar of Egypt, said, 'The wali, when he is alive, is like a sword in its sheath. After his death, his influence becomes stronger like that of a sword out of its sheath.' This statement is also quoted by Abu 'Ali Sanji in his book Nur al-hidaya. It is certified in the light of the Book (Qur'an al-karim), the Sunnat and ijma' al-Umma that karama is true. Hundreds of thousands of the karamat of the awliya' have been reported in many valuable books." The translation from the book Bariqa ends here.
And, a sahih hadith conveyed by the hadith scholars Ibn Hudhaima, ad-Dara Qutni and at-Tabarani on the authority of 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar (radi-Allahu ta'ala anhuma) states: 'It has become wajib for me to intercede for those who will visit my grave.' Imam al-Manawi, too, quoted this hadith in Kunuz ad-daqaiq. In addition, he wrote the hadith ash-Sharif, 'After my death, visiting my shrine is like visiting me when I am alive,' from Ibn Hibban; and the hadith ash-Sharif, 'I will intercede for the one who visits my grave,' from at-Tabarani. The following two hadiths, which are marfu', the first one quoted by Imam al-Bazzar and the second one written in the Sahih of Muslim and both on the authority of 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar (radi-Allahu ta'ala anhuma), are known by almost every Muslim: 'It has become halal for me to intercede for those who will visit by grave'; 'On the Day of Judgement I shall intercede for those who come to al-Madinat al-munawwara to visit my grave.'
It is great news that is quoted in the hadith ash-Sharif, "A person who performs hajj and then visits my grave will have visited me when I was alive," which was quoted by at-Tabarani, ad-dara Qutni and ['Abd ar-Rahman] Ibn al-Jawzi. The hadith ash-Sharif, "A person who does not visit me after carrying out the hajj will have hurt me," which ad-Dara Qutni quotes, alludes to those who neglect to visit the Prophet's ('alaihi 's-salam) grave after hajj though they do not have an excuse (not to do so).
'Abd al-'Aziz, Rector of the Islamic University of al-Madinat al-munawwara, wrote in his Tahqiq wa Idhah, "None of the [above] hadiths [recommending the visit] has any support or document. Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyya said that all of them were mawdu'. " However, their sanads (documents) are written in detail in the eighth volume of az-Zarqani's commentary to Al-mawahib and at the end of the fourth volume of as-Samudi's Wafa' al-wafa'. In these books, it is also written that these hadiths were hasan and that Ibn Taymiyya's comment was groundless. The rector and instructors of Medina university thus try to calumniate the writings of the 'ulama' of the Ahl as-Sunnat and in their place spread the Wahhabi tenets all over the world with their books. In order to convince Muslim and non-Muslim nations that they are true Muslims, they follow a new policy; they have founded an Islamic center called Rabitat al-Alam al-Islami in Mecca and have gathered ignorant, and bribable men with religious educations that they have chosen from every country, and to whom they pay salaries hundreds of gold coins. These ignorant men with religious posts, having no knowledge about the books of the scholars of the Ahl as-Sunnat, are used like puppets. From this center they disseminate their tenets, which they call "fatwas of world Muslim unity," to the whole world. In the fallacious fatwa issued during the Ramadan of 1395 (1975 A.D.), they said "It is fard for women to perform the salat of Juma. The Khutba of Juma and 'Iyd can be delivered in the native language of every country." A heretic named Sabri from among the followers of Mawdudi, a member of this center of fitna and fasad in Mecca, immediately took that fatwa to India, whereupon salaried, wealthy, and ignorant men being there forced women into mosques, and initiated the khutba to be read in various languages. To prevent this movement, scholars of the Ahl as-Sunnat and true men of religion in India (rahimahum-Allahu ta'ala) prepared fatwas from valuable sources and spread them. Wahhabis could not refute these fatwas -the truth. Hundreds of men with religious educations from Kerala, in southern India, realizing that they had been deceived, repented and returned to the line of the Ahl as-Sunnat. Four of those fatwas which are based on reliable sources, were printed in offset process and posted to all Islamic countries. Real men of religious authority in every country call the attention of Muslims to, and try to extinguish, the agitation which divides Islam from within. Thanks to Allahu ta'ala, the innocent and vigilant youth in every corner of the world can distinguish the truth from falsehood.
While explaining the subjects concerning the khutba of Juma, takbir iftitah and prayers in salat, Ibn 'Abidin (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala) wrote in his work Radd al-mukhtar: "Delivering the khutba in a language other than Arabic would be like saying the takbir iftitah ("Allahu akbar") in another language when beginning salat. The takbir iftitah is like the dhikrs of salat, and it is makruh tahrima to recite the dhikrs and prayers of salat in a language other than Arabic, as was forbidden by Hadrat 'Umar (radi-Allahu 'anh)." In the chapter on the wajibs of salat, he wrote: "To commit a makruh tahrima is a minor sin. If one continues to commit it, one loses one's 'adala." It is written in at-Tahtawi that a person who continually commits a minor sin becomes a fasiq and that one should go to another mosque in order not to perform salat [in congregation] behind an imam who is a fasiq or a committer of bidat. Because it was a makruh and a bidat, which is a grave sin, to read the whole or a part of the khutba in another language, the as-Sahabat al-kiram and the Tabiin (rahimahum-Allahu ta'ala) always delivered the entire khutba in Arabic in Asia and Africa, even though the listeners had no knowledge of Arabic and could not understand the khutba. Though religious knowledge had not spread and had to be taught to them, they read the entire khutba in Arabic. And it was for this reason that for six hundred years the Ottoman Shaikh al-Islams and world-wide famous great Muslim scholars, though they seriously wanted the khutba to be read in Turkish so that the congregation could understand its contents, could not permit it for they knew it was not permissible for the khutba to be delivered in Turkish.
A hadith ash-Sharif, reported by Imam al-Baihaki on the authority of Abu Huraira (radi-Allahu 'anh) states: "When a person greets me, Allahu ta'ala gives my soul to my body and I hear his greeting." Relying on this hadith ash-Sharif, Imam al-Baihaki (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala) said that prophets ('alaihi 's-salam) were alive in their graves in a life unknown to us.
And 'Abdal-'Aziz ibn 'Abdullah of Medina quotes this hadith on the 66 th page of his Al-hajj wal-umra and comments that it expresses the death of the Prophet ('alaihi 's-salam). Yet, on the same page, he states that he is alive in his grave in a life unknown to us. His statements contradict each other. In actual fact, this hadith ash-Sharif indicates that his blessed soul is given to his body and he responds to greetings. Furthermore, the two hadiths quoted on the 73 rd page of the same book report the command that one should say, "As-salamu 'alaikum ahl ad-diyari min al-Muminin," while visiting graves. The hadiths order us to greet the graves of all Muslims. Someone who hears can be greeted or spoken to; although the la-madhhabi quote these hadiths, they claim that the dead cannot hear and say 'polytheist' about those who believe that the dead can hear. They misinterpret ayats and hadiths!
There are many hadiths revealing that Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) is alive in his tomb in an unknown life. There being so many of them signifies that they are sound. Of these hadiths, the following two are written in six famous books of hadiths: "I will hear the salawat recited at my grave, I will be informed of the salawat recited at a distance"; "If a person recites salawat at my grave, Allahu ta'ala sends an angel and informs me of this salawat. I will intercede for him on the Day of Judgement."
If a Muslim goes to the grave of a dead Muslim whom he knew when he was alive and greets him the dead Muslim will recognize him and reply to him. A hadith ash-Sharif reported by Ibn Abi'd-dunya declares that a dead Muslim recognizes and answers the one who greets him and becomes happy. If a person greets dead people whom he did not know, they become pleased and acknowledge the greeting (salam). While good Muslims and martyrs (rahimahum-Allahu ta'ala) recognize and answer those who greet them, is it possible that Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) will not? As the sun in the sky illuminates the whole world, so he answers all simultaneous greetings simultaneously.
A hadith ash-Sharif says, "After my death, I will hear as I do when I am alive." Another hadith ash-Sharif reported by Abu Yala says, "Prophets ('alaihimu 's-salam) are alive in their graves. They perform salat." Ibrahim ibn Bishar and Sayyid Ahmad ar-Rifai and many awliya (rahimahum-Allahu ta'ala) said that they had heard a reply after they had greeted Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam).
The great Muslim scholar Hadrat Jalal ad-din as-Suyuti wrote the book Sharaf al-muhkam as an answer to the question asked of him: "Is it true that Sayyid Ahmad ar-Rifai kissed Rasulullah's blessed hand?" In this book, he proved with reasonable and traditional evidence that Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) was alive in his shrine in an incomprehensible life and that he heard and answered greetings. He also explained in this book that on the Miraj Night Rasulullah saw Musa ('alaihi 's-salam) performing salat in his grave.
A hadith ash-Sharif, which our mother 'Aisha as-Siddiqa (radi-Allahu 'anha) related, says, "I suffer the pain of the poisonous meat I ate at Khaibar. Because of that poison my aorta almost fails to function now." This hadith ash-Sharif shows that, in addition to prophethood, Allahu ta'ala has given the status of martyrdom to Muhammad, the Highest of Mankind ('alaihi 's-salam). Allahu ta'ala declares in the 169 th ayat of Surat al 'Imran: "Never regard those who have been killed in the way of Allahu ta'ala as dead! They are alive in His view. They are nourished." No doubt this great Prophet ('alaihi 's-salam), who has been poisoned in the way of Allahu ta'ala, is the highest of those honored with the status defined in this ayat karima.
A hadith ash-Sharif reported by Ibn Hibban says, "Prophets' ('alaihimu-'s-salam) blessed bodies never rot. If a Muslim recites the salawat for me, an angel conveys that salawat to me and says, 'So and so's son so and so has recited a salawat and greeted you.' "
A hadith ash-Sharif reported by Ibn Maja says, "On Fridays recite the salawat for me repeatedly! The salawat will be communicated to me as soon as it is recited." Abu 'd-darda' (radi-Allahu ta'ala 'anh), one of those who were in the company of the Prophet ('alaihi 's-salam) at that moment, asked, "Will it be communicated to you after you die, too?" The Prophet ('alaihi 's-salam) said, "Yes, I will be informed of it after my death, too, for, it is haram for the earth to decompose prophets ('alaihi 's-salam). They are alive after death, and they are nourished." [This hadith ash-Sharif is written also in the final section of the book Mawta-wal-qubur, by Thena-ullahi Pani-Puti. This book is in Persian and was printed in Delhi in 1310 [1892 A.D.] and reproduced by Hakikat Kitabevi in Istanbul in 1990].
Hadrat 'Umar (radi-Allahu 'anh), after the conquest of Quds (Jerusalem), went into the Prophet's ('alaihi 's-salam) Blessed Grave (al-Qabr as-Saada) and visited his grave and greeted him. Hadrat 'Umar ibn Abd al-'Aziz, who was a great wali, usually sent officials from Damascus to Medina and had them recite a salawat at the Blessed Grave and greet him. Hadrat 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar, after returning from each journey, would go directly to the Hujrat as-Saada; first he would visit Rasulullah ('alaihi 's-salam), then Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (radi-Allahu 'anh) and then his father and greet them. Imam Nafi' said, "More than a hundred times I saw Hadrat 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar go into the Blessed Grave and say, 'As-salamu 'alaika ya Rasul-Allah!' One day Hadrat 'Ali (radi-Allahu 'anh) went into Masjid ash-Sharif and he wept when he saw the grave of Hadrat Fatima (radi-Allahu 'anh) and he wept all the more when he went to the Hujrat as-Saada. Then, saying, 'As-salamu 'alaika ya Rasul-Allah' and 'As-salamu 'alaikuma, O Two Brothers of Mine!' he greeted the Prophet ('alaihi 's-salam), Hadrat Abu Bakr and Hadrat 'Umar (radi-Allahu ta'ala anhuma)."
According to al-Imam al-azam Abu Hanifa (rahmat-Allahi 'alaih), one should perform hajj first and then go to al-Madinat al-munawwara and visit Rasulullah ('alaihi 's-salam). The same is written in the fatwa of Abu 'l-Laith as-Samarqandi.
Qadi 'Iyad, author of the book Shifa'; Imam an-Nawawi, a Shafi'i alim; and Ibn Humam, a Hanafi alim (rahimahum-Allahu ta'ala), said that there had been ijma' al-Umma on it being necessary to visit the Blessed Grave. Some 'alims said that it is wajib.' As a matter of fact, it is sunnat to visit graves, a fact which is also written in the Wahhabite book Fat'h al-majid.
The 63 rd ayat al-karima of Surat an-Nisa' purports: "If they, after tormenting their nafses, come to you (My Messenger) and beg for Allahu ta'ala's (My) pardon, and if My Messenger apologizes on behalf of them, they will certainly find Allahu ta'ala as the Receiver of Repentance and Compassionate." This ayat karima indicates that Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) will intercede and his intercession (shafa'a) will be accepted. Also, it commands us to visit his blessed grave and to ask for his intercession by coming from distant places.
A hadith ash-Sharif states: "It is suitable to set off on a long journey only for visiting three mosques." This hadith points out that it is thawab to go on a long journey with the purpose of visiting Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Masjid an-Nabi in Medina and the Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem. For this reason, those who go for hajj but do not visit the Blessed Grave in Masjid an-Nabi will be deprived of this reward.
Imam Malik (rahmat-Allahi 'alaih) said that it is makruh for those who visit the Blessed Shrine to stay too long near the Hujrat as-Saada. Imam Zain al-'Abidin (rahmat-Allahi 'alaih), while visiting, stood near the pillar which stood in the direction of the Rawdat al-Mutahhara and he approached no further. Until Hadrat 'Aisha (radi-Allahu 'anha) died, the visit was done by standing, facing the qibla, at the outer side of the door of the Hujrat as-Saada.
A hadith ash-Sharif says, "Do not make my grave a [place of] festival." Hadrat 'Abd al-'Azim al-Munziri, a hadith scholar, explained this hadith ash-Sharif as: "Do not consider it enough to visit my grave only once a year, like on 'Iyd days. Try to visit me frequently!" And the hadith ash-Sharif, "Do not make a cemetery of your houses," means that we should not make our houses look like a cemetery by not performing salat. Thus it is seen that Hadrat al-Munziri's explanation is correct. As a matter of fact, it is not permitted to perform salat in a cemetery. It was said that this hadith ash-Sharif might come to mean, "Do not fix a certain day like a feast for visiting my shrine?" Jews and Christians, during their visit to their prophets, habitually assembled together, played instruments, sang songs and held ceremonies. These hadiths imply that we should not behave like them; that is, we should not make merry with forbidden things on feast days, nor play reeds or drums or gather to hold ceremonies during our visit. We should visit and greet, pray and then leave silently without staying long.
Al-Imam al-azam Abu Hanifa (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala) said that visiting the Blessed Grave is a most valuable sunnat, and there are some scholars who said that it is wajib. For this reason, visiting the Blessed Grave is allowed as a vow in the Shafi'i Madhhab.
In fact, "Allahu ta'ala, in His Word, 'If I had not created you, I would not have created anything!' points out that Muhammad ('alaihi 's-salam) is the Habib-Allah (Allahu ta'ala's Most Beloved). Even an ordinary person will not refuse something asked for the sake of his beloved. It is easy to have a lover do something for the sake of his beloved. If a person says, 'O my Allahu ta'ala! For the sake of Thine Muhammad ('alaihi 's-salam), I ask of Thee,' this wish of his will not be refused. Trivial worldly affairs, however, are not worth putting Rasulullah's (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) sake as a mediator."
Al-Imam al-azam Abu Hanifa (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala) said, "I was in Medina. Shaikh Ayyub as-Sahtiani, one of the sulaha', went into Masjid ash-Sharif. I followed him. Hadrat Shaikh faced the Blessed Grave and stood with his back to the qibla. Then he went out." Hadrat Ibn Jamaat wrote in his book Al-mansak al-kabir, "While visiting, after performing a salat of two rak'as and praying near the minbar (pulpit), you should come to the qibla side of the Hujrat as-Saada and, with the Prophet's ('alaihi 's-salam) blessed head on your left, you should stay two meters away from the wall of the al-Marqad ash-Sharif (the Prophet's shrine), then, leaving the qibla wall behind and turning slowly till you face the Muwajahat as-Saada, you should greet him. This is so in all the Madhhabs."
'Abd al-Ghani an-Nabulusi (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala), while explaining the twenty-third of the "Disasters incurred by the tongue," writes: "It is makruh tahrima to say, while praying, 'for the right of the prophets' or 'for the right of [such and such living or dead] wali' or to ask Allahu ta'ala for something by saying so, for, it has been said that no creature has any rights on Allahu ta'ala; that is, he does not have to grant anyone's wish. This is true, yet He promised His beloved servants and recognized a right for them on Himself; that is, He will accept their wish. He declared in Qur'an al-karim that He placed a right of His servants on Himself, for example, 'It has become a right on Us to help believers.' " It is declared in Al-fatawa al-Bazaziyya, "It is permitted to ask for something for the sake of a prophet or a dead or living wali by mentioning his name." The commentary on Shir'a states: "One must pray [to Allahu ta'ala] by making intermediaries of His prophets ('alaihi 's-salam) and salih believers. This is also written in Al-hisn al-hasin." As it is seen, Muslim scholars said that it is permissible to pray to Allahu ta'ala through the right and love which He has given to His beloved ones. And no scholar said that it would be polytheism to pray with the idea that men have rights on Allahu ta'ala. Only Wahhabis say so.
Though they praise Al-fatawa al-Bazaziyya in the book Fat'h al-majid and put forward his fatwas as documents, they oppose him in this respect. Also Hadimi, while explaining the "Disasters caused by the tongue," wrote: " 'For the right of Thy Prophet or wali' means 'his prophethood or wilaya is right.' Our Prophet ('alaihi 's-salam), too, with this intention said, 'For the right of Thy Prophet Muhammad,' and, during the wars he asked for Allahu ta'ala's help for the right of the poor among the Muhajirun. Also there were many Muslim 'ulama' who prayed, 'For the sake of those people whom Thou hast given whatever they asked from Thee,' and, 'For the right of Muhammad al-Ghazali,' and who wrote these prayers in their books." The book Al-hisn al-hasin is full of such prayers. The tafsir Ruh al-bayan says in an explanation of the eighteenth ayat of Surat al-Maida: A hadith reported by 'Umar al-Faruq (radi-Allahu 'anh) states: "When Adam ('alaihi 's-salam) made a mistake, he said, 'O my Rabb! Forgive me for the sake of Muhammad ('alaihi 's-salam).' And Allahu ta'ala said, 'I have not created Muhammad yet. How do you know him?' He said, 'O my Rabb! When Thou created me and gave me of Thine soul, I looked up and saw the phrase "La ilaha illa'llah Muhammadun Rasulullah" written on the skirts of the 'Arsh. Thou would only write the name of Thine most beloved by Thine Name. Considering this, I knew that Thou loved him very much.' Upon this Allahu ta'ala said, 'O Adam, you tell the truth. Of Mine creatures, he is the one I love most; so I have forgiven you for his sake. If Muhammad had not existed, I would not have created you.' " This hadith ash-Sharif is quoted in Imam al-Baihaki's Dala'il and in Alusi's Ghaliyya.
The Wahhabi writes: "Imam Zain al-'Abidin 'Ali (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala) saw a man praying by the Prophet's ('alaihi 's-salam) grave and interrupted him by telling him the hadith, 'Recite a salawat for me. Wherever you are, your greeting will be communicated to me.' " It narrates the event incorrectly and goes on, "Hence, it is forbidden to go near a grave for praying and reciting salawat, which is similar to making graves places of festival. It is forbidden for those who go to perform salat in Masjid an-Nabi to approach the tomb for greeting. None of the Sahaba did so, and they prevented those who wanted to do so. No other deed but the prayers and greetings said by his Umma will be communicated to the Prophet." He also writes that the Sa'udi government placed soldiers near the Prophet's ('alaihi 's-salam) shrine in Masjid an-Nabi to prevent Muslims from doing so.
Hadrat Yusuf an-Nabhani refuted these lies at many places in his book: "Imam Zain al-'Abidin (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala) did not forbid visitation to the Blessed Grave of the Prophet ('alaihi 's-salam). But he forbade non-Islamic, disrespectful behavior during a visit. His grandson, Imam Jafar as-Sadiq, used to visit the Hujrat as-Saada, and, standing near the pillar which stood in the direction of the Rawdat al-Mutahhara, greet and say, 'His blessed head is on this side.' 'Do not make my grave [a place of] festival', means 'Do not visit my grave on certain days like feast days. Visit me all the time.' " "Abu 'Abdullah al-Qurtubi writes in his At-tazkira that the deeds of the Prophet's ('alaihi 's-salam) Umma are communicated to him every morning and every evening." (pp. 88, 106) "Khalifa Mansur, during his visit to [the shrine of] the Prophet ('alaihi 's-salam), asked Imam Malik, 'Shall I face the tomb or the qibla?' Imam Malik (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala) said, 'How could you turn your face away from Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam)? He is the cause of your and your father Adam's ('alaihi 's-salam) forgiveness!" (pp. 89, 116) "The hadith ash-Sharif, 'Visit graves!' is a command. If a haram is committed during the visit, not the visit itself, but the haram should be forbidden." (p. 92) "Imam an-nawawi says in his Adhkar, 'It is a sunnat to visit frequently the shrines of the Prophet ('alaihi 's-salam) and of pious Muslims and to stay for some time near such places of visitation.' " (p.98) "Ibn Humam, in his Fat'h al-Qadir, quotes the hadith ash-Sharif transmitted by ad-Dara Qutni and al-Bazzar which says, 'If someone visits me [at my shrine] only with a view to visiting me and not to do anything else, he will have the right to be interceded for by me on the Day of Judgement.' " (p. 100) "Allahu ta'ala favored the awliya' with karamat. Their karamat are witnessed frequently even after their death. They are able to be helpful after death, too. It is permitted to have them intercede with Allahu ta'ala. But one should ask help from them in a manner compatible with Islam. It is not permitted to say, 'I will give that much... for you if you give me what I request,' or 'If you cure my sick relative,' which is often uttered by the ignorant. However, this cannot be regarded as an act causing disbelief or polytheism, for, even the utterly ignorant person will not think that the wali will create. He wants the wali to be the cause in Allahu ta'ala's creating. He thinks that the wali is a human creature whom Allahu ta'ala loves, and says, 'Please ask Allahu ta'ala to favor me with what I wish; He will not reject your prayer.' As a matter of fact, Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said, 'There are many people who are considered low and worthless but who are Allahu ta'ala's beloved slaves. When they want to do something, Allahu ta'ala certainly creates it.' Obeying such hadiths, Muslims ask the awliya' to intercede. Imam Ahmad, al-Imam ash-Shafi'i, Imam Malik and al-Imam al-azam Abu Hanifa (rahimahum-Allahu ta'ala) said that it is jaiz (possible, permissible) to attain baraka (blessing) through the graves of the pious. Those who say that they are of the Ahl as-Sunnat or that they belong to one of the Madhhabs of the Ahl as-Sunnat must say as these imams said. Otherwise, they may be judged not to be of the Ahl as-Sunnat, but liars." (p. 118)
It is written in the subject concerning carrying out hajj on behalf of someone else in the book Al-fatwa al-Hindiyya, "It is permissible to devote the thawab of an 'ibada to someone else. Therefore, the thawab of salat; fast; alms; pilgrimage; recitation of Qur'an al-karim; dhikr; visitation of the tombs of prophets, martyrs, awliya' and salih Muslims; giving a shroud for a corpse; and the thawab of all gifts and good deeds can be devoted." It is understood from this passage, too, that visiting the graves of the awliya' does bring thawab.
Documents of what has been written so far are written at length in our Arabic and English books. Allahu ta'ala orders Muslims to unite. Therefore, all Muslims should learn the itiqad of the Ahl as-Sunnat wal-Jamaat and come together on the right way of Truth by believing as reported in the books of these great scholars of the Ahl as-Sunnat. The Prophet (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said that the only right way will be the way of the Ahl as-Sunnat. We must be very careful not to dissent from the unity of the Ahl as-Sunnat and not to be taken in by the deceitful writings of ignorant men with religious post who trade in religious books and the writings of heretics who want to deceive Muslims. Allahu ta'ala declares clearly in the 114 th ayat of Surat an-Nisa that those who dissent from the Muslims' unity will go to Hell. It is clear by documents and references that a person who does not belong in one of the four Madhhabs has separated himself from the unity of the Ahl as-Sunnat and that such a la-madhhabi person will become a heretic or a non-Muslim.
The book At-tawassulu bi'n-Nabi wa jahalat al-Wahhabiyyin proves with examples and documents that Ibn Taymiyya had departed from the way of the Ahl as-Sunnat wal-Jamaat.
3 - Wahhabis say, "It causes kufr (disbelief) and shirk (polytheism) to build a dome over a grave, to light oil-lamps for those who worship and serve in shrines, and to vow alms for the souls of the dead! The inhabitants of al-Haramain (Mecca and Medina) have worshipped domes and walls up to now."
Building a dome over a grave is haram if it is for ostentation or ornamentation. If it is for protecting the grave from destruction, it is makruh. If it is intended lest a thief or an animal should break in, it is permissible. But it should not be made a place for visiting; that is, one should not say that it should be visited at certain times.
It is not makruh to bury corpses in a building that has been built before. The As-Sahabat al-kiram buried Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) and his two Khalifas in a building. None of them stood against it. The Hadith ash-Sharif states that their unanimity could not be heresy. The great Islamic scholar Ibn 'Abidin wrote: "Some scholars said that it was makruh to put a covering cloth, a skullcap or a turban over the graves of pious Muslims or awliya'. The book Al-fatawa al-hujja says that it is makruh to cover a grave with cloth. But, to us, it is not makruh if it is intended to show everybody the greatness of the one in the grave or to prevent him from being insulted or to remind those who visit him to be respectful and behave well. Acts that are not prohibited in the al-adillat ash-Shariyya should be judged in view of the intention involved. Yes, it is true that during the time of the Sahabat al-kiram neither domes were built over graves nor sarcophagi or clothes were put on graves. But none of them was against the interment of Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) and the Shaikhain (his two immediate Khalifas) in a room. For this reason and for carrying out the commands, 'Do not step on graves!' and 'Do not be disrespectful to your dead!' and because they were not prohibited, they cannot be bidats only because of being done afterwards. All fiqh books state that right after the farewell tawaf it is necessary to leave Masjid al-Haram as an act of respect towards the Kaba al-Muazzama. However, the as-Sahabat al-kiram, because they respected the Kaba in every regard, did not use to do so. But since succeeding generations were unable to show due reverence, our 'ulama' declared that it was necessary to show respect by leaving the Masjid by walking backwards. Thus, they made it possible for us to be respectful like the as-Sahabat al-kiram. Likewise, it became permissible to cover the graves of the sulaha' and awliya with cloth or to build domes over them in order to be respectful as Sahabat al-kiram were. The great scholar Hadrat 'Abd al-Ghani an-Nabulusi explains this in detail in his book Kashf an-nur." In Arabia, shrines are called "mashhad." In al-Madinat al-munawwara, there were many mashhads in the Baki' Cemetery. The la-madhhabi destroyed all of them. No Islamic scholar has ever said that it would be polytheism or disbelief to build domed tombs or to visit tombs. No one has ever been seen demolishing tombs.
Ibrahim al-Halabi (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala) wrote at the end of the book Al-Halabi al-kabir, "If a person decides that his land will be a cemetery and if there is an empty space in it, it is permissible for one to build a domed tomb in it with an intention of burying a corpse. When there is no empty space left, this tomb shall be demolished and graves shall be dug [in its place]. This is so because it is a place belonging to a waqf, devoted to be a cemetery." If building domed tombs had been known to be polytheistic, or if domed tombs had been considered idols, it would always have been necessary to demolish them.
The first of the Islamic tombs to exist on the earth was the Hujrat al-mu'attara, where Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) is buried. Our master Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) passed away in the room belonging to his beloved wife, our mother 'Aisha (radi-Allahu 'anha), before noon on Monday, the twelfth of Rabi al-awwal, 11 A.H. On Wednesday night he was buried in that room. Hadrat Abu Bakr and Hadrat 'Umar (radi-Allahu ta'ala 'anhuma) were buried in the same room. No Sahabi was opposed to this. Now, this unanimity of the Sahabat al-kiram is being opposed to. Even though denial of ijma' al-Umma by explaining away (tawil) of a dubious document (dalil) does not result in disbelief, it causes bidat.
Hadrat 'Aisha's ('radi-Allahu 'anha) room was three meters high, somewhat more than three meters long and wide, and was made of sun-dried bricks. It had two doors, one facing the west and the other facing the north. Hadrat 'Umar (radi-Allahu ta'ala 'anh), when he was Khalifa, enclosed the Hujrat as-Saada with a low stone wall. 'Abdullah ibn Zubair (radi-Allahu ta'ala 'anhuma), when he became Khalifa, demolished this wall and rebuilt it with black stones and had it plastered beautifully. This wall was not roofed at the top and there was a door on the north. When Hadrat Hasan (radi-Allahu ta'ala 'anh) passed away in 49 A.H., his brother Hadrat Husain (radi-Allahu ta'ala 'anh), as required by his last will, had his corpse brought to the door of the Hujrat as-Saada and wanted to take his corpse into the shrine to pray and ask for intercession; there were some people who opposed it, thinking that the corpse would be buried in the shrine. Therefore, to prevent the clamor, the corpse was not taken into the shrine and was buried at the Bakee' Cemetery. Lest such unsuitable events should happen again, the doors of the room and the one outside were walled up.
Walid, the sixth Umayyad Khalifa, when he was the governor of Medina, raised the wall round the room and had it covered over with a small dome. When he became Khalifa, he ordered 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz, his successor as the governor of Medina, to enlarge the Masjid ash-Sharif in 88 (707 A.D.); hence, the room was surrounded with a second wall. This was pentagonal in shape and roofed with no door.
The book Fat'h al-majid says: "A person who intends to get blessed (tabarruk) with a tree, stone, grave or the like becomes a polytheist. Graves have been idolized by building domes over them. The people of the Jahiliyya Ages, too, worshipped pious persons and status. Today, all such and even more excessive acts are committed at shrines and graves. To attempt to get blessed with the graves of pious persons is similar to worshipping the idol al-Lat. These polytheists suppose that awliya' hear and answer their prayers. They say that they approach the dead by making vows and giving alms for the graves. All these acts are major forms of polytheism. A polytheist is still a polytheist even if he calls himself something else. Praying to the dead respectfully and affectionately, slaughtering animals, making vows and other similar acts are all polytheistic whatever they call them. Today's polytheists, using the words 'ta'zim' (respect, honor) and 'tabarruk,' say that what they do is permissible. This supposition of theirs is fallacious."
We have already translated the answers given by Muslim scholars to such offensive lampoons against the Muslims of the Ahl as-Sunnat, and have written them down in our various books. In the following, a passage from the first chapter of the book Al-usul al-arba'a fi tardid al-Wahhabiyya is translated to show the vigilant reader that the Wahhabis have deceived themselves and will lead Muslims to ruination:
Qur'an al-karim, Hadith ash-Sharif, sayings and acts of the Salaf as-salihin, and most of the 'ulama' document that it is permissible to show ta'zim to somebody other than Allahu ta'ala. The 32 nd ayat of Surat al-Hajj states: 'When one shows honor (yu'azzim) to Allahu ta'ala's sha'a'ir, this behavior is out of the hearts' taqwa.' So it became wajib to show honor to Allahu ta'ala's sha'a'ir. 'Sha'a'ir' means 'signs and indications.' Abdulhaqq ad-Dahlawi (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala) said, 'Sha'a'ir is the plural of shaira, which means indication ('alama). Anything that reminds one of Allahu ta'ala is a shaira of Allahu ta'ala.' The 158 th ayat of Surat al-Baqara says: 'As-Safa and al-Marwa are among the sha'a'ir of Allahu ta'ala.' As understood from this ayat karima, not only the hills as-Safa and al-Marwa are the sha'a'ir of Allahu ta'ala, but there are other sha'a'ir as well. And not only the places called 'Arafat, Muzdalifa and Mina can be cited as sha'a'ir. Shah Wali-Allah ad-Dahlawi (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala) says on the 69 th page of his work Hujjat Allahi 'l-baligha, 'The greatest sha'air of Allahu ta'ala are Qur'an al-karim, Kabat al-Muazzama, the Prophet ('alaihi 's-salatu wa 's-salam) and ritual salat.' And on the 30 th page of his book Altaf al-Quds, Shah Wali-Allah ad-Dahlawi (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala) says, 'To love the sha'a'ir of Allahu ta'ala means to love Qur'an al-karim, the Prophet ('alaihi 's-salatu wa sallam) and the Kaba, or, to love anything that reminds one of Allahu ta'ala. To love the awliya' of Allahu ta'ala is the same.' While the two hills near Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, namely as-Safa and al-Marwa, between which the Prophet Ismail's ('alaihi 's-salam) mother Hadrat Hajar walked, are among the sha'a'ir of Allahu ta'ala and can cause one to remember that blessed mother, why should not the places where the Prophet Muhammad ('alaihi 's-salam), who is the most superior of all creatures and the Beloved One of Allahu ta'ala, was born and brought up and the places where he worshipped, migrated, performed salat and passed away and his blessed shrine and the places of his Al (his blessed wives and Ahl al-Bait) and companions be counted among the sha'air? Why do they destroy these places?
When Qur'an al-karim is read attentively and objectively, it will be easily seen that many ayats express 'ta'zim' for Rasulullah ('alaihi 's-salam). The Surat al-Hujurat declares: 'O those who believe! Do not go ahead of Allahu ta'ala and His Prophet (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam)! Fear Allahu ta'ala! O those who believe! Do not speak louder than the Prophet's voice! Do not call him as you call one another! The reward for the deeds of those who do so will vanish! Allahu ta'ala fills with taqwa the hearts of those who lower their voices in the presence of Allahu ta'ala's Prophet; He forgives their sins and gives many rewards. Those who shout at him from the outside are thoughtless; it is better for them to wait till he comes out.' It is apparent to a person who reads and thinks over these five ayats impartially how much Allahu ta'ala praises the ta'zim that will be shown to His beloved Prophet ('alaihi 's-salam) and how seriously He commands the Umma to be respectful and modest towards him. The degree of its importance can be judged by the fact that all the deeds of those who speak louder than him will come to naught. These ayats came as a penalty for the seventy people of the Bani Tamim tribe who had called the Prophet by shouting disrespectfully in Medina. Today some people say that they are the descendants of the Bani Tamim tribe. It must have been for them that Rasulullah said, 'A violent and torturous people are in the East,' and 'Satan will arouse disunion from there,' pointing to a direction towards the Najd territory [on the Arabian Peninsula] with his blessed hand. Some of the la-madhhabi are 'Najdis,' who have spread out from the Najd. The disunion predicted in the above hadith appeared twelve hundred years later: they came from the Najd to the Hijaz, plundering Muslims' possessions, killing the men and enslaving the women and children. They committed baser evils than disbelievers.
WHAT IS MORE: In the above ayats, the repetitive phrase 'O those who believe,' shows that all Muslims of all centuries till the Last Day are commanded to be respectful towards Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam). If the command had been only for the as-Sahabat al-kiram, 'radi-allahu ta'ala anhum ajmain', 'O as-Sahaba,' would have been said. As a matter of fact, the phrases, 'O wives of the Prophet!' and 'O people of Medina!' are Qur'anic. The same phrase, 'O those who believe!' is used in the ayats stating that salat, fast, pilgrimage, zakat and other 'ibadas are fard for all Muslims of all times till the Last Day. So the Wahhabis' idea that 'the Prophet (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) was to be respected when he was alive; neither respect is to be shown to nor help is to be asked from him after his death,' is groundless in view of these ayats.
The above ayats indicate that ta'zim towards others besides Allahu ta'ala is also necessary. The 104 th ayat of Surat al-Baqara states: 'O those who believe! Do not say "Ra'ina" [to the Prophet], but say, "look upon us." You, be listeners to Allahu ta'ala's commands.' believers used to say 'Ra'ina' (watch over, protect us) to the Prophet (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam). 'Ra'ina' also meant 'to swear, to blemish' in the Jewish language, and the Jews used this word for the Prophet (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) in this sense. Because it also had this bad meaning, Allahu ta'ala forbade the believers to use this word.
The 33 rd ayat of Surat al-Anfal purports, "Allahu ta'ala will not punish them while you are with them," and promises not to punish them until the end of the world. This ayat refutes the Wahhabis' claim that the Prophet went away and became soil.
The 34 th ayat of Surat al-Baqara purports: "When We said to the angels, 'Prostrate yourselves before Adam,' they all fell prostrate, except the Satan (Iblis)." This ayat karima commands that Adam ('alaihi 's-salam) should be shown ta'zim. Satan refused to respect somebody other than Allahu ta'ala and slandered prophets, and thus disobeyed this command. Wahhabis are in the footsteps of Satan. Yusuf's ('alaihi 's-salam) parents and brothers, too, showed honor to him by prostrating themselves before him. If it caused polytheism or disbelief to show honor or respect to somebody other than Allahu ta'ala, He would not have praised His beloved slaves with the word 'sajda' (prostration) when describing them. According to the Ahl as-Sunnat, prostration before somebody other than Allahu ta'ala is haram because it resembles the prostration in 'ibada, not because it is a sign of respect!
Satan always appeared in the figure of an old man of the Najd to Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam). When the disbelievers assembled at a place called Dar an-Nadwa in Mecca and decided to kill the Prophet, Satan appeared in the figure of an old man of the Najd and taught them how to carry out the murder, and they agreed to do as the Najdi old man said. Since that day, Satan has been called Shaikh an-Najdi. Hadrat Muhyiddin Ibn al-'Arabi writes in his work Al-musamarat: "When the Quraish disbelievers were repairing the Kaba, each of the heads of the tribes said that he was going to replace the valuable stone called al-Hajar al-aswad. Later they agreed that the person who came [to the Kaba] first the following morning would be the referee to choose one from among them to place the stone. Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) was the first who came, he was twenty-five then, and they said they were going to obey what he said because he was trustworthy (amin). He said, "Bring a carpet and put the stone on it. You all hold the carpet at its sides and raise it to the level where the stone will be placed." After it was raised, he took the stone from the carpet with his blessed hands and set it at its place in the wall. At that moment. Satan appeared in the figure of the Shaikh an-Najdi and, pointing to a stone, said, "Put this beside it to support it." His real purpose was for the foul stone he pointed to fall in the future, so that the Hajar al-aswad would lose its steadiness and, consequently, people would consider Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) inauspicious. Seeing this, Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said, "A'udhu bi'llahi min ash-shaitani 'r-rajim," and Satan immediately ran away, disappeared.' Because Muhyiddin ibn al-'Arabi (rahmat-Allahi ta'ala 'alaih), with this writing, made known to the world that the Shaikh an-Najdi was Satan, the la-madhhabi hate this great wali. They even call him a disbeliever. It is understood also from this passage that their leader was a Satan. For this reason, they destroy the blessed places inherited from Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam). They say that these places make people polytheists. If it were polytheism to pray to Allahu ta'ala in sacred places, Allahu ta'ala would not have ordered us to go for hajj; "Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) would not have kissed the Hajar al-aswad while he was performing tawaf; nobody would pray at 'Arafat and Muzdalifa; stones would not be thrown at Mina, and Muslims would not walk between as-Safa and al-Marwa. These sacred places would not have been respected that much.
When Sad ibn Muaz (radi-Allahu ta'ala 'anh), the head of the Ansar, came to where they assembled, Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said, "Stand up for your leader!" This command was intended for all of them to honor Sad. It is wrong to say, "Sad was ill. It was intended that he should be helped off his riding-animal," because the order was for all of them. If it were intended for helping him, the order would have been for one or two persons only, and "for Sad" would have been said, and there would have been no need to say "for your leader."
Every time he went from Medina to Mecca for hajj, 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar (radi-Allahu 'anhuma) stopped and performed salat and prayed at the sacred places where Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) had sat. He would become blessed by these places. He would put his hands on Rasulullah's (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) minbar (pulpit) and then rub them on his face. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (rahmat-Allahi ta'ala 'alaih) would kiss the Hujrat as-Saada and the pulpit to become blessed by them. The la-madhhabi, on the one hand say that they belong to the Hanbali Madhhab, and, on the other, regard as 'polytheism' what the imam of this Madhhab did. Then, it is understood that their claim to be Hanbali is false. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal put al-Imam ash-Shafi'i's (rahmat-Allahi ta'ala 'alaih) shirt into water and drank the water to get blessings. Khalid ibn Zaid Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (radi-Allahu 'anh) rubbed his face against Rasulullah's (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) blessed grave and, when someone wanted to lift him up, he said: 'Leave me! I came not for the stones or soil but for the audience of Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam).'
The as-Sahabat al-kiram ('alaihimu 'r-ridwan) used to get blessed with the things that belonged to Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam). They received blessings from the water he used in ablution and from his blessed sweat, shirt, scepter, sword, shoes, glass, ring, in short, from anything he used. Umm-i-Salama (radi-Allahu 'anha) the mother of the Faithful, kept a hair from his blessed beard. When ill people came, she would dip the hair into water and have them drink the water. With his blessed glass, they used to drink the water for health. Imam al-Bukhari's (rahmat-Allahi ta'ala 'alaih) grave emanated the smell of musk, and people took soil from the grave to get blessed with it. No alim or Mufti disapproved of it. The 'ulama' of hadith and fiqh permitted such actions." Translation from the book Usul-ul-arba'a ends here.
[During the times of the Sahabat al-kiram and the Tabiin, and even until the end of the first millennium, there were many awliya' and sulaha'. People used to visit and receive blessings from them as well as obtain their prayers. There was no need to make the dead intermediaries (tawassul) or to get blessed (tabarruk) with lifeless things. The fact that these actions were rare in those days does not mean that they were forbidden. If they had been forbidden, there would have been those who would prevent them. No alim prevented them.
As the Last Age has set in, however, bidats and symptoms of disbelief have increased. The youth have been deceived by the enemies of Islam in the disguise of religious authorities and scientists, and, because irreligiousness or apostasy has suited their purposes, dictators and the cruel, the slaves of their nafses, have given great support to this movement. The number of 'alims and walis has decreased, there even has not appeared any in the last decades, and, therefore, it has become a must to be blessed by the graves of and the things inherited from the awliya'. But, something, which are haram to do, have been inserted into these too, as if it was done in every affair and worship.
With unanimity of the 'ulama' of Islam, not this lawful practice itself should be prevented, even though prohibited behaviors (harams) have been introduced into it, but instead the bidats introduced into it should be removed].
 The seventh volume of the former's 12-volume Tarih-i Osmani and the third volume of the latter's 5-volume Mirat al-Haramain (p. 99. Turkish, the Library of Sulaimaniyya).
 Meccan scholars wrote very beautiful answers to Kitab at-tawhid and refuted it with sound documents in 1221. The collection of their refutations, titled Saif al-Jabbar, which was later printed in Pakistan, was reproduced in Istanbul in 1395 [1975 A.D.].
 The correct meanings of these ayats by the 'ulama' of the Ahl as-Sunnat and the matters of tawhid and tawakkul are written in detail in Endless Bliss, Third Fascicle, Chapter 35. Those who know the correct meaning of 'tawhid' will understand that the Wahhabis, who consider themselves muwahhids, are not muwahhids (believers in tawhid).
 Majaz is the use of a word not in its usual or obvious literal meaning but in a sense connected to its meaning. When a word special to Allahu ta'ala is used for men in a majazi (figurative, symbolic) sense, the Wahhabis take it in its literal meaning and call the one who uses it symbolically a polytheist and disbeliever; they are unaware that such words are used for men in symbolical senses in Qur'an al-karim and Hadith ash-Sharif.
 A skin-diseased person, albion or vitiligo, with complete or partial whiteness, respectively, of the skin.
 Al-usul al-arba'a fi tardid al-Wahhabiyya (in Persian), end of the second part, India, 1346 (1928 A.D.); photographic reproduction, Istanbul, 1395 (1975 A.D.). This book was written by Muhammad Hasan Jan Sahib, one of the grandsons of hadrat Imam Rabbani 'rahmatullahi ta'ala alaihima'. The author, Jan Sahib, refutes the Wahhabis and other la-madhhabi people also in his Arabic work Tariq an-najat, India, 1350 (with Urdu translation); photographic reproduction, Istanbul, 1396 (1976 A.D.).
 Jamil Sidqi az-Zahawi (rahmat-Allahi ta'ala 'alaih) an alim of Iraq, in his work Al-fajr as-Sadiq fi 'r-raddi 'ala 'l-munkiri 't-tawassuli wal-karamati wal-hawariq (published in Egypt in 1323 (1905 A.D.), photographic second reproduction, Istanbul, 1396 (1976 A.D.), explained this ayat-i karima and proved that it had been misinterpreted. Jamil Sidqi taught 'ilm al-kalam at the University of Istanbul. He died in 1355 (1936 A.D.). The 1956 edition of Al-munjid gives a picture of him.
 To ask the shafa'a (intercession) of idols is a superstitious, false belief. It is unlawful in Islam to believe in it, yet it is not polytheism. Worshipping idols is polytheism.
 Al-milal wa 'n-nihal (Turkish), p. 63, Cairo, 1070 A.H.
 See pp. 18 and 31 above. See also our Advice for the Muslim for details on the same subject.
 Shaikh 'Ali Mahfuz, Al-ibda', p. 213, Cairo, 1375 (1956 A.D.); 'Abdullah ad-Dasuqi and Yusuf ad-Dajwi, professors at Jami' al-Azhar, wrote eulogies praising the book at the end of Al-ibda'.
 'Abd al-Ghani an-Nabulusi, Al-Hadiqat an-nadiyya, p. 182, Istanbul, 1290.
 Al-Hadiqa an-nadiyya, p. 290.
 These three booklets were published together with Ahmad Zaini Dahlan's (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala 'alaih) Ad-durar as-saniyya fi 'r-raddi 'ala 'l-Wahhabiyya in Cairo in 1319 (1901 A.D.); photographic reproduction, Istanbul, 1396 (1976 A.D.).
 Bariqa, p. 269.
 Mirat al-Madina (Mirat al-Haramain) p. 106.
 'Justness'; he will become unreliable on religious matters; he will not be accepted as a witness.
 This hadith qudsi is quoted also in al-Imam ar-Rabbani's (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala) Maktubat, vol III, 122 nd letter.
 Mirat al-Madina, p. 1282.
 Hadimi, Bariqa, Istanbul, 1284.
 Fat'h al-Majid, p. 259; see above p. 53 for this book.
 ibid, p. 234.
 Shawahid al-haqq, p. 80. 3rd. ed., Cairo, 1385 /(1965 A.D.). The next six quotations with page numbers refer to this book, too.
 This hadith is also quoted on the 381 st page of the book Fat'h al-majid.
 Hashiyatu Durr al-mukhtar by the great scholar Ahmad at-Tahtawi and Al-basa'ir 'ala 'l-munkiri 't-tawassuli bi 'l-maqabir, which was written in Pakistan as a refutation to fat'h al-majid and reprinted in Istanbul.
 Ibn 'Abidin, Hashiyatu Durr al-mukhtar (Radd al-mukhtar) p. 232, vol. V, Bulaq, 1272; Kashf an-nur and Jalal ad-din as-Suyuti's (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala) Tanwir al-khalak fi imkani ruyati 'n-Nabi jiharan wal-malak were published together with the title Al-minhat al-wahbiyya, Istanbul, 1393 (1973 A.D.).
 See article 15 in Advice for the Muslim for more detail.
 Fat'h al-majid, p. 133.
 Because the Prophet said, 'When awliya' are seen Allahu ta'ala is remembered,' which is quoted in Ibn Abi Shaiba's Musnad, in Irshad at-Talibin, and in Kunuz ad-daqaiq, this hadith ash-Sharif shows that, awliya', too, are among the sha'air. It is written in Jami' ul-fatawa that it is permissible to build domes over the graves of Awliya and 'Ulama in order to show them honor.
 Al-usul al-arba'a, part one.
 Those who are in the disguise of scientists are called "science impostors", while those in the disguise of religious men are called 'zindiqs'.
 The writings of the 'ulama' on this subject are quoted in Ahmad bin Zaini Dahlan's Ad-durar as-saniyya fi 'r-raddi 'ala 'l-Wahhabiyya, Egypt, 1319 and 1347; photographic reproduction, Istanbul, 1395 (1975 A.D.). Those who read them will have no doubts left.